The Pardu

Celestial Wonders: Earth and Beyond (Pluto) International Space Statioin Link

An Earth Wonder!!!!!
Divers dwarfed by an enormous sunfish


Imagine scuba diving in the quiet depths of the ocean and spotting an enormous shape emerging from the blue. This is what some divers faced when they approached a gigantic sunfish and began taking videos and photos while trying to contain their excitement for the rare size of the animal. This type of fish can weigh up to 5,000 pounds and grow to as much as 9 feet long, but luckily they don’t eat humans.

Despite its size, the fish looked pretty innocuous and actually seemed to enjoy its 15 minutes of fame when the divers took plenty of photos and recorded footage of the latest celebrity in the animal kingdom. Here is the full video of the encounter:




As Earth Wonder million of yeas of Earth’s evolution.




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Psychedelic Pluto






Cassini Bids Its Final Farewell to Saturn’s Moon Enceladus
Image result for cassini spacecraft



Pluto

https://youtu.be/B0xkupKwjfM


 Dec 4, 2015

This movie is composed of the sharpest views of Pluto that NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft obtained during its flyby on July 14, 2015. The pictures are part of a sequence taken near New Horizons’ closest approach to Pluto, with resolutions of about 250-280 feet (77-85 meters) per pixel – revealing features smaller than half a city block on Pluto’s diverse surface. The images include a wide variety of cratered, mountainous and glacial terrains – giving scientists and the public alike a super-high resolution view of Pluto’s complexity. 




V774104, is a little less than half of Pluto’s size and two to three times farther awaydwarf_planet_v774104_spotted_by_hawaii_s_subaru_telescope_video.html

http://c.brightcove.com/services/viewer/federated_f9?isVid=1&isUI=1

Pluto coming into view via NASA A close-up view of the rugged, icy mountains and flat ice plains on Pluto is seen in an image from NASA's New Horizons spacecraft taken July 14, 2015 and released on Sept. 17, 2015. REUTERS/NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI/Handout via Reuters

A close-up view of the rugged, icy mountains and flat ice plains on Pluto is seen in an image from NASA's New Horizons spacecraft taken July 14, 2015 and released on Sept. 17, 2015. REUTERS/NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI/Handout via Reuters

Embedded image permalink Deep Space Vista (and a rarity) October 12, 2015 The moon passed between Nasa’s Deep Space Climate Observatory and the Earth, allowing the satellite to capture this rare image of the moon’s far side in full sunlight. MARS

Watch this in full screen. Simply amazing! Posted by The Progressive Press on Monday, October 5, 2015

________________________ Life on Mars? Well, probably not as we know life, but there seems to be something flowing on (or in) the planet. Aol

Jaw-dropping images give us a first glimpse of Mars’ liquid water

For years, a team of NASA scientists had pondered over the enigmatic dark streaks lining the inner and outer faces of craters on the Martian surface, shown below.
But no longer.
RELATED: Life on Mars? NASA says planet appears to have flowing water NASA announced the answer to the conundrum Monday: The streaks are evidence of flowing water.
crater NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona
Most mysterious about these streaks — which can be as long as a football field — was that they appeared to change in size over time, growing longer during Mars’ warm summer months and shrinking during colder seasons:
flows

NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona
If these photos were taken on Earth, the immediate conclusion would be flowing water. But this is Mars, a place where liquid water had never before been discovered.
All that changed Monday when the NASA team announced that these dark, mysterious features were, indeed, flowing water.
There are many pieces that had to fit together to finally conclude, beyond a doubt, that this was water and not a bizarre pattern from Martian weather. One of the convincing pieces of evidence was that the streaks flow downhill, as shown here:
mars NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of ArizonaAnd here:
marswater

NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona
But what ultimately convinced the team that it was water, instead of another form of liquid, was when they used instruments onboard NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, a satellite in orbit around the Red Planet.
MRO has an instrument called a spectrometer, which scans the Martian surface and identifies the chemical makeup of what’s down there. From these scans, the team identified hydrated salts within the dark streaks.
The importance of these salts is that they “would lower the freezing point of a liquid brine, just as salt on roads here on Earth causes ice and snow to melt more rapidly,” NASA explained in a press release.

Here’s a false-color image showing how prevalent these streaks are:
PIA19916_hires NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona
This means that frozen salt water could thaw into a liquid at lower temperatures, which is important since the hottest days on Mars only reach about 70 degrees Fahrenheit.
Whether the streaks themselves are flowing water or simply the result of it is still a mystery.
Nevertheless, “the detection of hydrated salts on these slopes means that water plays a vital role in the formation of these streaks,” Lujendra Ojha, of the Georgia Institute of Technology and lead author on the paper describing the team’s findings, said.

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 THE WHITE HOUSE 

Heading into the unknown…


Almost everything we know about living in space ends at six months. Now that I am at the midpoint of my mission, heading into the second half of one year in space aboard the International Space Station, I am looking forward to exploring the science of this uncharted territory and stepping into the unknown.

My Russian colleague Mikhail Kornienko and I are living in space for one year to push the edge of our scientific understanding. To add in another dynamic, researchers are conducting “twin studies” to compare the subtle effects and changes in spaceflight as compared to Earth by studying my twin brother and I, two individuals who have almost identical genetics, but are in different environments for one year. We hope that the knowledge gained on this mission will benefit the Earth and that the data collected will help send humans to new destinations, supporting the next generation of space exploration.

Whether it is living in low Earth orbit for one year or a two year mission to the Red Planet, I have learned that human potential is limitless and we should never stop pushing the boundaries of exploration.

Thank you for supporting me and joining me on this mission. I am posting on social media with the hope that I can bring all of you on Earth along for the ride. I want to inspire you to reach further for your dreams and know that anything is possible.

The people who make International Space Station operations possible, the flight controllers watching over our ship 24-7-365, and the researchers analyzing the data we get back have invested their careers and lives to this mission to serve the United States and inspire the next generation.

I have traveled 72 million miles around Earth in the past 171 days — flying at 17,500mph — and have had the opportunity to experience our home planet from an incredible perspective. When I come home in March, I will have orbited the Earth 5,472 times traveling 141.7 million statute miles and spent more time in space than any U.S. astronaut in history. Please join me for the next six months of my mission — as I reach these milestones and continue NASA’s work off the Earth, for the Earth.

Commander Scott Kelly selfie above the Bahamas
NASA astronaut Scott Kelly takes a selfie with the Bahamas from 250 miles above Earth aboard the International Space Station.

Please continue to follow the mission at www.nasa.gov/station and on social media at @StationCDRKelly on Twitter and Instagram, NASA Astronaut Scott Kelly on Facebook and using #YearInSpace.

Sincerely,
Scott

Scott Kelly
NASA Astronaut

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If you wish to spot the International Space Station in your area NASA has provided a link. I have watched the celestial traveler twice as it travel 249 mile across my field of view for six minutes.  (EASY SETUP)

Huble never ceases to amaze.

A galactic maelstrom
M96

NASA and Celestial wonders (Giga Pixels on Andromeda) https://youtu.be/udAL48P5NJU ________________________

Pluto does not disappoints!

Interesting planet, lots of ice. Posted by Rob McDonald on Tuesday, July 14, 2015

Pluto March 2015

Larger Version

The White House

America is the first country to reach Pluto, and this is the closest image we’ve ever seen. It took a decade to fly our New Horizons spacecraft through the solar system to send back this love note from the dwarf planet. Congrats on a successful #PlutoFlyBy, NASA – National Aeronautics and Space Administration:www.nasa.gov/newhorizon

Pluto just had its first visitor! Thanks – it’s a great day for discovery and American leadership.

 https://youtu.be/93SkmOj06Xo 

Time interval shots.


Earth as seen on July 6, 2015 from a distance of one million miles by a NASA scientific camera


A NASA camera on the Deep Space Climate Observatory satellite has 
returned its first view of the entire sunlit side of Earth from one million 
miles away. Linked.

More Deep Space Climate Observatory images from NASA reported via AoL: http://aol.it/1RLBZu1
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Enhanced-color image of Hyperion from Sept. 26, 2005. (NASA/JPL/SSI)

Enhanced-color image mosaic of Hyperion from Sept. 26, 2005. (NASA/JPL/SSI)

Cassini to Perform Its Final Flyby of Hyperion

Hubble 25 years after launch
Earth Science
Amazing Physics 
Space Station Arts and Science….
Published on Dec 22, 2014

Watch Earth roll by through the perspective of ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst in this six-minute timelapse video from space. Combining 12 500 images taken by Alexander during his six-month Blue Dot mission on the International Space Station this Ultra High Definition video shows the best our beautiful planet has to offer. 

Marvel at the auroras, sunrises, clouds, stars, oceans, the Milky Way, the International Space Station, lightning, cities at night, spacecraft and the thin band of atmosphere that protects us from space.  Often while conducting scientific experiments or docking spacecraft Alexander would set cameras to automatically take pictures at regular intervals. Combining these images gives the time-lapse effect seen in this video. 

Watch the video in 4K resolution for the best effect and find out more about Alexander Gerst’s Blue Dot mission here:http://www.esa.int/BlueDot

To the absolute depths of Earth
Linked 

Full story: http://bit.ly/1r3msch A newly-discovered species with a bizarre body has been spotted deeper down than any other living fish. More from the Depths of Earth’s Oceans

You are here! You-Are-Here Earth’s Invisible ‘Star Trek’ Force Field Protects You From Killer Electrons The Huffington Post | By Ed Mazza Email Posted: 12/01/2014

EARTH SHIELD
Must read link below

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/12/01/earth-invisible-force-field_n_6245942.html

It’s almost like theses electrons are running into a glass wall in space,” professor Daniel Baker, director of CU-Boulder’s Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physicsand lead author of the study, said in a news release. “Somewhat like the shields created by force fields on ‘Star Trek’ that were used to repel alien weapons, we are seeing an invisible shield blocking these electrons. It’s an extremely puzzling phenomenon.” 
While it had been speculated that Earth’s magnetic fields or even radio signals from human transmitters were blocking the electrons, Baker and his team say neither possibility explains the sudden wall the electrons appear to be hitting. 
“When you look at really energetic electrons, they can only come to within a certain distance from Earth,” Shri Kanekal, deputy mission scientist for the Van Allen Probes at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center and a co-author on the paper said. “This is completely new. We certainly didn’t expect that.”
Read more linked above
Ring of Fire. A picture taken by NASA of the Northern Lights from space.

__________________________________________ The European Space Agency (Not NASA) landed a ten year space traveler craft on a comment traveling at 41,000 miles per hour.  A major feat for mankind. A feat that can be cut short by a malfunction glob of “wax seal.”

Combination photo of different images taken with Philae's camera system shows the Rosetta lander on the surface of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Philae landed on the comet Nov. 12 next to a cliff that largely blocked sunlight from reaching its solar panels.

The landing of the craft cannot and will not be diminished by any malfunction. Mankind moves forward and science expands. http://www.dlr.de/dlr/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-10081/151_read-12176/#/gallery/17219 http://www.cnn.com/2014/11/12/world/comet-landing-countdown/index.html

The following will not set well with conservatives who believe the Earth is 6,000 years old. Sadly……

50 Unbelievable Facts About Earth [infographic]

OCTOBER 28, 2014 |  BY   |  ENVIRONMENTAL

From the bottom of the ocean to top of the highest mountain, this planet can still surprise us. The Earth has been explored and examined for many years. In those years a lot of information has been learned. Some of that information is truly unbelievable. This infographic illustrates some of those amazing facts.
Some of the facts I found most interesting is that a day is not exactly 24 hours long but it is shorter. Another fact is that lighting strikes the earth 8.6 million times in one day. One sad fact is 90% of the trash in the oceans is plastic. Remember the next time you see a plastic bottle on the ground pick it up and recycle.
Finally two interesting facts about the humans that live on this planet. One is that 200,000 people are born every day. The second fact is that two people die every two second. This is interesting because this planet has limited resources to sustain an ever increasing population.
The next time you go outside look around and see the beauty of this planet. Take in the fresh air, smell the flowers, and walk around the block. Remember that we are the caretakers of this planet in order to pass it on to the next generation.

MUST read and view!!! 

This time-lapse shows flowers opening on a ‘Daydream’ hybrid echinopsis cactus,” explains succulent enthusiast Greg Krehel (http://instagram.com/echinopsisfreak). “The video shows eight hours of action. The flowers open overnight and rarely last more than a single day.” 

After years of owning desert-loving cacti that succumbed to Miami’s sogginess, Greg one day inadvertently took home an echinopsis, a genus of frequently-flowering cactus that thrives in humidity. What started as a chance encounter soon became an obsession. 

“Now I’m at 100 echinopsis species and hybrids,” says Greg. Through time-lapse photography, Greg is able to capture, condense and share his many cacti’s brilliant blooms. As Greg explains, “my passion for the cacti themselves has morphed into a passion for imaging them.” 

To see more vivid time-lapse videos of Greg’s diverse echinopsis family, visit the Instagram blog:http://blog.instagram.com/post/95565374557/echinopsisfreak

Video by @echinopsisfreak http://instagram.com/p/rHjfjrqZHD/

A deep ocean aquatic wonder! The illusive Giant Squid http://www.huffingtonpost.com/tedtalks/giant-squid-ted-edith-widder_b_5599461.html?ncid=webmail1

This is a picture from the Curiosity Rover on Mars showing Earth from the Perspective of Mars. You are literally looking at your home from the Perspective of another planet. 

Seven Days Filing our Celestial World http://vimeo.com/22439234

Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights) over Northern Canada

Earth’s Moon eclipses Saturn

The Moon Eclipses Saturn
Image Credit & Copyright: Carlos Di Nallo

Saturn’s Moon: Titan

The Cleanest Picture Of Mercury Ever Taken

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First Extraterrestrial Waves Ever Spotted On Titan

March 18, 2014 | by Janet Fang

photo credit: Titan’s hydrocarbon lakes, annotated, taken by Cassini / NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona/University of Idaho

Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, looks a lot like Earth, except in deepfreeze. It’s got a nitrogen atmosphere, along with lakes and seas, channels sculpted by rivers, and even mudflats and rain clouds. The moon is so much like our planet that it’s a frequent setting for sci-fi: the (spoiler alert) promised land for Tom Cruise’s character in Oblivion, as well as the setting for Kurt Vonnegut’s second novel.

Read more 

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A galaxy full of Earths?

By Jim Bell

updated 4:47 PM EDT, Fri April 18, 2014

LINKED graphic display

A team of astronomers announced April 17, 2014, that they have discovered the first Earth-size planet orbiting a star in the so-called “habitable zone” — the distance from a star where liquid water might pool on the surface. That doesn’t mean this planet has life on it, says Thomas Barclay, a scientist at the Bay Area Environmental Research Institute at Ames and a co-author of a paper on the planet, called Kepler-186f. He says the planet can be thought of as an “Earth-cousin rather than an Earth-twin. It has many properties that resemble Earth.” The planet was discovered by NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope. It’s located about 500 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cygnus. The picture above is an artist’s concept of what it might look like.
HIDE CAPTION
Where life might live beyond Earth

Editor’s note: Jim Bell is a professor in the School of Earth and Space Exploration at Arizona State University and a member of the NASA Curiosity Mars rover camera team. He is president of The Planetary Society and author of, most recently, The Space Book: 250 Milestones in the History of Space and Astronomy.” The opinions expressed in this commentary are solely those of the author.

(CNN) — The amazing discoveries from NASA’s Kepler planet-hunting space telescope keep rolling in. The latest, announced this week by astronomers, is the discovery of a planet just 10% larger than the Earth orbiting in the so-called “habitable zone” of the star Kepler-186.

Read much more

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Jupiter’s IO the Yellow Moon 3.30.2014

See Explanation.  Clicking on the picture will download  the highest resolution version available.

Image Credit: Galileo ProjectJPL, NASA

Explanation: The strangest moon in the Solar System is bright yellow. This picture, an attempt to show how Io would appear in the “true colors” perceptible to the average human eye, was taken in 1999 July by the Galileo spacecraft that orbited Jupiter from 1995 to 2003. Io’s colors derive from sulfur and molten silicate rock. The unusual surface of Io is kept very young by its system of active volcanoes. The intense tidal gravity of Jupiter stretches Io and damps wobbles caused by Jupiter’s other Galilean moons. The resulting friction greatly heats Io‘s interior, causing molten rock to explode through the surface. Io’s volcanoes are so active that they are effectively turning the whole moon inside out. Some of Io‘s volcanic lava is so hot it glows in the dark.

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First Asteroid Ring System Found around Chariklo

LUCIE MAQUET

An artist’s conception shows the icy asteroid Chariklo and its rings, which are 4 miles and 2 miles (7 kilometers and 3 kilometers) wide and separated by a 6-mile-wide (9-kilometer-wide) gap. The ring system extends about 500 miles (810 kilometers) in diameter.

http://youtu.be/AbGzSAPicKY _____________________

Dwarf planet Ceres in asteroid belt may contain more freshwater than Earth (via Raw Story )

Scientists have confirmed signs of water on the dwarf planet Ceres, the largest object in the asteroid belt. A team led by the European Space Agency detected water plumes spewing from two regions of the dwarf planet using the infrared Herschel Space…
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Posted: 05 Oct 2013 08:45 AM PDT
I’ve always wanted to learn how to surf. It looks so peaceful and zen, despite the fact that it is basically an art of controlled falling. I’ve gotten into some of the more modern ‘extreme’ boarding like snowboarding and skateboarding, but I feel like surfing is really the seed of these now so-called ‘extreme sports’.

It’s believed that the ancient Polynesians (progenitors of Hawaii) started the act of surfing. The first written record was by Joseph Banks aboard the HMS endeavor in 1779, although the cultural custom of surfing most likely predates this record. The ancient Hawaiians regarded surfing, or he’e nalu (wave sliding), as an almost sacred activity to communicate with the ocean and pray for their protection and strength. I bet every single one of the surfers on this infographic were praying as well. Most likely praying for their life not to end after riding these giant tsunami-waves.

As you can see, this infographic uses the friggin’ Statue of Liberty as a scale for how massive these waves are. EFF THAT’S HUGE. You can even see all of the puny air we’ve gotten through other methods – snowboarding, skating, jumping, etc. Nothing can quite get you higher than that thing that takes up about 70% of earth.

Led Zeppelin THE OCEAN
[via]  Larger View…Right Click Open in New Tab)

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What’s the deal with Voyager 1?

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We’ve been having a long-running discussion in the office lately about whether NASA’s Voyager 1 spacecraft has left the solar system — or not.

Luckily for us, our in-house astrophysicist stopped by Bill’s office to explain. As you can see from Summer Ash in the video below, the short answer is no, Voyager 1 has not left the solar system. It has left the familiar planets behind, but, despite what your science teacher might have told you, Neptune and Pluto are not the end of our solar neighborhood.

NASA/JPL-Caltech

“Last August, Voyager began to send back data that indicated the spacecraft was approaching and subsequently passing through this transition. For the data geeks among you, this graph plots solar wind particle per second versus time (top) and cosmic ray particles per second versus time (bottom).

NASA/JPL/GSFC

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We are not alone!!!! (9/22/13)

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Voyager 1 Reaches Beyond Our Solar System [Infographic]

SEPTEMBER 21, 2013 |  BY   |  MIND-BLOWING

Although this infographic is a little dated (Voyager 1 is now officially in interstellar space) it conveys a lot of cool info about what the Voyager 1 is and what instruments this probe contains. In 1977, this little guy was launched from Earth. It studied Jupiter and Saturn and has since been on a trajectory of no certain destination ever since. Its mission now is to just keep exploring farther and farther away from us in interstellar space; the space between stars. It is now the farthest man-made object from us (12 billion miles!). It’s pretty insane to think about, really.
Just a few days ago NASA officially announced that the probe has actually left our solar system. It will be centuries until it reaches another star. So what defines being outside of our solar system? Well, Voyager has an instrument on it that measures ions emitted from the sun. Even though there is no sound in space, the density of ions is read as an acoustic wave via the vibrating plasma around the probe (which you can listen tohere). By measuring this data, it is now believed that this density at which it is currently located is outside the gravitational pull of the sun!
So bon voyage, Voyager! Keep rocking out with your golden vinyl and ion-waves!
If you’d like to learn more about the Voyager 1, Radiolab did a great spot on it (listen here)
[via]    (Larger view here)

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger... _______________________ The Earth’s largest cave (Viet Nam) This is phenomenal! 111516692 111516705

SonDoongCave.org – Son Doong cave (Vietnamese: Hang Son Doong) is world’s largest cave, located in Quang Binh province, Vietnam. It is found by a local man named Ho Khanh in 1991 and was recently discovered in 2009 by British cavers, led by Howard Limbert See more
http://c.brightcove.com/services/viewer/federated_f9?isVid=1&isUI=1 A “deep blue” planet revealed by Hubble data orbits very close to its star, as shown in this animated illustration of spectroscope data.

By: Mike Wall

Published: 04/18/2013 02:55 PM EDT on SPACE.com

NASA’s Kepler space telescope has discovered three exoplanets that may be capable of supporting life, and one of them is perhaps the most Earth-like alien world spotted to date, scientists announced today (April 18).

That most intriguing one is called Kepler-62f, a rocky world just 1.4 times bigger than Earth that circles a star smaller and dimmer than the sun. Kepler-62f’s newfound neighbor, Kepler-62e, is just 1.6 times larger than Earth, making the pair among the smallest exoplanets yet found in their star’s habitable zone — the just-right range of distances where liquid water can exist on a world’s surface.
Read more linked above

April 2, 2013 Mercury Rock Mercury Meteorite? Green Space Rock Found In Morocco May Be First From Innermost Planet

Posted: 03/31/2013 9:44 am EDT
March 17, 2013 Aurora Borealis

The Black Hole (excuse the background music)

Venus as seen by Cassini spacecraft
The Cassini spacecraft spotted the spark of Venus while orbiting Saturn 1.4 billion km away. Click to encronosenate.

Venus from Saturn
Another view of Venus from Saturn, taken in November 2012. Click to cythereanate.


Ersfjordbotn, Norway 

These “mammatus clouds” were photographed above Hastings, Nebraska, after a destructive thunderstorm in May 2005. Although their formation is not completely understood, these rare clouds usually develop at the base of a thunderstorm, and appear lumpy because of instabilities and temperature differences between sinking and rising air. Credit: Nebraska Dept. of Natural Resources

A long filament erupted on the sun on Aug. 31, 2012. The filament of solar material had been hovering in the sun’s atmosphere, or corona, and erupted into space, creating a coronal mass ejection, or CME. The flare traveled at an astonishing 900 miles per second, and connected with Earth’s magnetic environment, causing aurora to appear on the night of Sept. 3.
Click through for more amazing space photos.
This image depicts the unilluminated side of Saturn’s rings and was taken in green light with NASA’s Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on Aug. 19, 2012. The view was captured at a distance of approximately 1.5 million miles from Saturn. 
NASA’s Curiosity rover this fall used the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) to capture dozens of high-resolution images that were combined into self-portrait images of the rover.
This stunning view of Earth reveals the planet at night in unprecedented detail. Released by NASA Dec. 5, it was assembled from multiple shots taken by the Suomi NPP satellite during April and October 2012. The new data was mapped over existing Blue Marble imagery of Earth to provide a realistic view of the planet.

On Aug. 27, NASA released a high-resolution shot of the dark dunes and layered rock at the base of Mars’ Mount Sharp, Curiosity’s eventual destination. The image, which was taken on Aug. 23, looks south-southwest from the rover’s landing site. The top ridge of the distant mountain is about 10 miles from the rover.

GRAIL I (EBB) and GRAIL II (FLOW)

Mission Overview
Artist concept of Grail mission
Artist’s concept of the GRAIL mission. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech 
The GRAIL mission will place two spacecraft into the same orbit around the Moon. As they fly over areas of greater and lesser gravity, caused both by visible features such as mountains and craters and by masses hidden beneath the lunar surface, they will move slightly toward and away from each other. An instrument aboard each spacecraft will measure the changes in their relative velocity very precisely, and scientists will translate this information into a high-resolution map of the Moon’s gravitational field.
This gravity-measuring technique is essentially the same as that of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE), which has been mapping Earth’s gravity since 2002.
Objectives
GRAIL’s engineering objectives are to enable the science objectives of mapping lunar gravity and using that information to increase understanding of the Moon’s interior and thermal history. Getting the two spacecraft where they need to be, when they need to be there, requires an extremely challenging set of maneuvers never before carried out in solar system exploration missions. Mission design
The two GRAIL spacecraft will be launched together and then will fly similar but separate trajectories to the Moon after separation from the launch vehicle, taking about 3 to 4 months to get there. They will spend about 2 months reshaping and merging their orbits until one spacecraft is following the other in the same low-altitude, near-circular, near-polar orbit, and they begin formation-flying. The next 82 days will constitute the science phase, during which the spacecraft will map the Moon’s gravitational field.
Spacecraft and payload
The two GRAIL spacecraft are near-twins, each about the size of a washing machine, with minor differences resulting from the need for one specific spacecraft (GRAIL-A) to follow the other (GRAIL-B) as they circle the Moon.
The science payload on each spacecraft is the Lunar Gravity Ranging System, which will measure changes in the distance between the two spacecraft down to a few microns — about the diameter of a red blood cell. Each spacecraft will also carry a set of cameras for MoonKAM, marking the first time a NASA planetary mission has carried instruments expressly for an education and public outreach project.

Hurricane Isaac August 2012 hurricane isaac at night

Pink Floyd “Echoes” as a back drop…the visuals are celestial!

Underwater sculpture, in Grenada, in honor of our African Ancestors who were thrown overboard the slave ships during the Middle Passage of the African Holocaust. [Please share to make this go viral on facebook let people see and know our pain]



the Milky Way.” It got the name because its filaments were thought to look like spindly spider legs. NASA released the image in April 2012.

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